Part 5: A feka ei! I'm exhausted!
5.1: Until Now... (Just Kidding!)
We've been learning a lot of new stuff, so I want to slow it down, a little bit, and let it all stew. So this chapter is going to be all about family relations. Maybe we'll throw in a couple of conjunctions here and there, but that's it.
5.2: Nuclear Power!
So, in the minds of some, there's the idea of a nuclear family, which is the one that is related to each other by just one link and, additionally, live in the same house. It's an odd idea, but a fine way to start introducing terms. A few of these you will know, but I don't want you to send your computer crashing to the floor in disgust (if you have, you won't be reading this), because there will be some exciting new terms you don't know.
Now that's what the Heads of State call the Constituents, and vice-versa. But what do they call each other? If you guessed nothing, you'd be absolutely right! After all, how many times do you go up to your sister/wife/husband/brother and say, "Hello, sister/wife/husband/brother. How are you today?" It's kind of like people's names: We know them, but really, when's the last time you called them by it, unless for some reason they weren't listening to you and you wanted to get their attention? But anyway, someone out there needs to know how to express their relationships to one another, and these people (called the "We Need to Put an End to the Craziness" Committee) came up with some names. Here they be:
First off, you may notice that the word for "woman" and "wife" is the same. You may also notice that while there is a separate word for "husband", the word hopoko, which means "man", can also mean "husband". These things just happen. Hopoko is probably more common; fotu more technical--when you want to make sure someone knows this is the man you're married to, and not just some man you're identifying as yours.
Next, you'll see there are a bunch of crazy terms for brother and sisterhood. If you're a twin, you're lucky, because you've only got one word (though, if you know English or Spanish, the word is rather unfortunate). If not, while you can use sibling, it's about as common as the English word "sibling". Besides, don't you think of your younger brother or sister as "carrotcarrot"? I know I do.
Now, sometimes, I'm afraid to say, espoused persons have brothers and sisters, and, like all the creatures on the planet, they've got to have a name. So, now we have to introduce another category: The Embassy. They're on the same level as the heads of state, though, so they don't get their own category. Here's how all these people call each other:
Now, get ready for something you'll appreciate: The Constituents only refer to each other with those terms, no matter how old they are, whether they're second cousins, whose parents they are, or any of that. There are only those three terms. Rejoice! Such is not the case, though, when they inter-refer to each other. Here's that set:
Now there's yet another level: The Law. The Law is the level above the Heads of State and The Embassy. Here's how they all refer to each other:
Finally, there is one last group, which we will call The Authority. These are people that are three tiers above the Constituents. Once one of the Heads of State or The Embassy has a Constituent, those who previously occupied The Law become The Authority, for as long as they live. They are generally referred to only one way by everyone, and they refer to everyone else in only one way (more so in large gatherings; they'll still call their daughter their daughter on the telephone--every other Sunday when it doesn't rain). So, here is how The Authority figures into this mess:
As you can see, these last terms don't indicate exact relationships. What it does is when there's four generations in the family, the last generation becomes u Ulape, and they remain so until death. And, like I said, a grandmother will still call her mother "mother", but not in front of the kids. In front of them, she is Malape.
Lastly, there are just a few straggling terms. If you've got a relative and you can't remember how they relate to you or you relate to them, you just call them ola. Olane is a female relative and ola'o is a male one, but ola is the regular term. Usually what you just say is, "Olaka i oiei!", "I've got family!". Also, since it hasn't come up yet, you say he'emi for "baby". It's not the only word, but it'll do for now.
So, what do you think? Thoroughly confused? Wish you were still learning grammar? Ha, ha, ha, ha! Ahh, the unimaginable power of the author...! But, no, learning a language is not about wielding power over another; it's just about having fun and communicating. And this whole part was just an excuse to lay down a bunch of nouns that were somewhat related so you could have some sort of concrete set to refer back to. Maybe we'll talk about animals next... We'll see. There's no way to know what will come. The future! Oooooooooh! Everyone fear the future! Hee, hee, hee...
5.3: I, Me, Me, Mine!
I love copyright infringement, don't you? Funny thing is, Michael Jackson bought the copyrights to all the Beatles' songs. If you want to perform them in public and get money for it, you have to write to him to ask him if you can do covers. Crazy, huh? What's more, it was Paul McCartney--the worst Beatle--who suggested that he spend his millions buying the copyrights to songs (it was when they recorded "The Girl Is Mine" for Thriller). Of course, he had no idea he would buy his songs (as he calls them). Serves him right, says I. But anyway...
It occurred to me right now as I was trying to come up with some exercises that it might help to know how to say things like "my mother", "your father", und so weiter. Und so nun, ich werde dir eine Liste über die Genitifpronomen geben. Oh, wait, I don't speak German... I'll go ahead and tell you how to form some genitive pronouns. However, I must warn you that there are many ways to form genitive pronouns depending on the relationship implied, so don't go around using this method to say "my car" or "my boss" in Kamakawi. You do that, I'll find out, and I'll sick Iko on you--she's vicious.
Iko: <growling> Urrrrrrrrraaaaaaaaaaowr!
Oh, my, that was adorable! Oh well. Anyway, here's how the genitive works in this case. The word ordinarily used to mean "and" or "with", oi, is used as a prefix and is prefixed to any noun, which changes that noun into "x's". This new word is then placed after the word which is possessed. Here are some examples:
But also, notice...
That's how you use it. Now, this is the way the prefix is used: (1) To indicate familial relationships; (2) to indicate relationships between a human and his/her pets; (3) to indicate relationships between animal families themselves; (4) to indicate non-professional relationships, as one's friends and acquaintances. For other types of relationships, other strategies are necessary. These will do for now.
5.4: Something You Should Know...
If you want to negate a nonequative sentence, you take that word oku and put it at the end of the sentence. Example:
There is another way to do it, but only in the present tense. Since the subject status markers aren't obligatory in the present, you can put "oku first as a kind of negative subject marker. Here it would be:
But you cannot do this in the past:
By following these patterns, you will be on the road to negative success in no time!
5.5: Hungry? I Am. Makes Me Want to Do Some Exercises...
Okay, let's do this thing.
Translate from Kamakawi to English: 1.) Iko i mala oiei. 2.) Ka ale hopetine oilea i Havai'i. 3.) Kama'a meline oi'ipe hopoko. 4.) Helea fala oikela oiei. 5.) Kavaka layalea oipeaka kau. 6.) U meli oieika ioku'u kamali'a. 7.) Kelea malane oinea oku. 8.) A pale nanai oi'iko eine i ipe pale. 9.) Eli ei i hetela'o oiei. 10.) Fe'ave'a malape oiei.
Translate from English to Kamakawi: 1.) Her parents are doctors. 2.) My friend isn't cooking. 3.) I didn't see your grandmother. 4.) You talked to this boy's uncle. 5.) Their cousins go to school. 6.) He loves her older sister. 7.) She doesn't love her husband. 8.) Yours and my great grandparents are dead. 9.) Your mother's father isn't happy. 10.) This is my older brother's, wife's, sister-in-law's, mother's father.
5.6: Makilotumu Two! (Or Three or Four...)
apela (n.) sibling in law
pataki (n.) boy pataleka (n.) older brother of a girl, older sister of a boy pale (v.) to live at, to reside at pekane (n.) sister in law on the husband's side peka'o (n.) brother in law on the husband's side pela (n.) sibling pelane (n.) sister in law on the wife's side pela'o (n.) brother in law on the wife's side
tapela (n.) older brother of a boy, older sister of a girl tela (n.) aunt/uncle (non-gender specific) telane (n.) aunt on one's mother's side tela'o (n.) uncle on one's mother's side
kaka (n.) twin (same age, gender not important) kala (poiu) (v.) to talk to, to talk kepi (n.) son kepi'o (n.) son in law kela (n.) niece/nephew (non-gender specific) kelane (n.) niece of one's sister or sister in law kela'o (n.) nephew of one's sister or sister in law kelea (v.) to be sad
eli (v.) to love
mata (v.) to see mala (n.) mother malape (n.) great grandmother malane (n.) one's wife's mother mali (n.) child ma'amu (v.) to be going to school meli (n.) grandchild meline (n.) daughter of one's daughter or daughter in law meli'o (n.) son of one's daughter or daughter in law
naka (n.) carrot nakanaka (n.) younger sister of a boy, younger brother of a girl nanai (n.) friend neula (n.) ancestor neulane (n.) female ancestor neula'o (n.) male ancestor noko (n.) mother's father (grandfather) none (n.) mother's mother (grandmother) nola (n.) grandparent
inemile (v.) to be dead
laya (n.) daughter layane (n.) daughter in law (one's daughter or son's wife)
opela (n.) younger sister of a girl or younger brother of a boy oi- (pref.) used to express nonprofessional, inter-being relationships oine (n.) spouse ola (n.) relative olaka (n.) one's extended family olane (n.) female relative ola'o (n.) male relative
fala (n.) father falape (n.) great grandfather falane (n.) one's wife's father fe'ave'a (v.) to be wise fotu (n.) husband
ula (n.) parent ulape (n.) great grandparent
hetelane (n.) aunt on one's father's side hetela'o (n.) uncle on one's father's side hekepi (n.) son in law (son or daughter's spouse's brother) hekelane (n.) niece of one's brother or brother in law hekela'o (n.) nephew of one's brother or brother in law hemala (n.) one's husband's mother hemeline (n.) daughter of one's son or son in law hemeli'o (n.) son of one's son or son in law henoko (n.) one's father's father henone (n.) one's father's mother helaya (n.) daughter in law (son or daughter's spouse's sister) helea (v.) to cry, to weep hefala (n.) one's husband's father he'emi (n.) baby hopeti (n.) cousin hopetine (n.) female cousin hopeti'o (n.) male cousin hopoko (n.) husband
Pogo on Over to Part 6!