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Part 5: A feka ei! I'm exhausted!


5.1: Until Now... (Just Kidding!)

We've been learning a lot of new stuff, so I want to slow it down, a little bit, and let it all stew. So this chapter is going to be all about family relations. Maybe we'll throw in a couple of conjunctions here and there, but that's it.


5.2: Nuclear Power!

So, in the minds of some, there's the idea of a nuclear family, which is the one that is related to each other by just one link and, additionally, live in the same house. It's an odd idea, but a fine way to start introducing terms. A few of these you will know, but I don't want you to send your computer crashing to the floor in disgust (if you have, you won't be reading this), because there will be some exciting new terms you don't know.

EXCITEMENT! NEW! FUN!

 
Heads of State:
ula = parent
mala = mother, ma = mom
fala = father, fa = dad

 
Constituents:
mali = child (non-gender specific)
laya = daughter
kepi = son

Now that's what the Heads of State call the Constituents, and vice-versa. But what do they call each other? If you guessed nothing, you'd be absolutely right! After all, how many times do you go up to your sister/wife/husband/brother and say, "Hello, sister/wife/husband/brother. How are you today?" It's kind of like people's names: We know them, but really, when's the last time you called them by it, unless for some reason they weren't listening to you and you wanted to get their attention? But anyway, someone out there needs to know how to express their relationships to one another, and these people (called the "We Need to Put an End to the Craziness" Committee) came up with some names. Here they be:

 
Heads of State:
oine = spouse
eine = wife
fotu, hopoko = husband

 
Constituents:
pela = sibling
pataleka = older brother of a girl; older sister of a boy
tapela = older brother of a boy; older sister of a girl
nakanaka = younger sister of a boy; younger brother of a girl
opela = younger sister of a girl; younger brother of a boy
kaka = twin (same age, non-gender specific)

First off, you may notice that the word for "woman" and "wife" is the same. You may also notice that while there is a separate word for "husband", the word hopoko, which means "man", can also mean "husband". These things just happen. Hopoko is probably more common; fotu more technical--when you want to make sure someone knows this is the man you're married to, and not just some man you're identifying as yours.

Next, you'll see there are a bunch of crazy terms for brother and sisterhood. If you're a twin, you're lucky, because you've only got one word (though, if you know English or Spanish, the word is rather unfortunate). If not, while you can use sibling, it's about as common as the English word "sibling". Besides, don't you think of your younger brother or sister as "carrotcarrot"? I know I do.

Now, sometimes, I'm afraid to say, espoused persons have brothers and sisters, and, like all the creatures on the planet, they've got to have a name. So, now we have to introduce another category: The Embassy. They're on the same level as the heads of state, though, so they don't get their own category. Here's how all these people call each other:

 
Heads of State & The Embassy:
apela = sibling in law
pelane = sister in law on the wife's side
pela'o = brother in law on the wife's side
pekane = sister in law on the husband's side
peka'o = brother in law on the husband's side

 
Constituents:
hopeti = cousin (non-gender specific)
hopetine = female cousin
hopeti'o = male cousin

Now, get ready for something you'll appreciate: The Constituents only refer to each other with those terms, no matter how old they are, whether they're second cousins, whose parents they are, or any of that. There are only those three terms. Rejoice! Such is not the case, though, when they inter-refer to each other. Here's that set:

 
Heads of State & The Embassy:
kela = niece/nephew (non-gender specific)
kelane = niece of one's sister or sister in law
kela'o = nephew of one's sister or sister in law
hekelane = niece of one's brother or brother in law
hekela'o = nephew of one's brother or brother in law

 
Constituents:
tela = aunt/uncle (non-gender specific)
telane = aunt on one's mother's side
tela'o = uncle on one's mother's side
hetelane = aunt on one's father's side
hetela'o = uncle on one's father's side

Now there's yet another level: The Law. The Law is the level above the Heads of State and The Embassy. Here's how they all refer to each other:

 
The Law:
layane = daughter in law (daughter or son's wife)
kepi'o = son in law (daughter or son's husband)
helaya = daughter in law (son or daughter's spouse's sister)
hekepi = son in law (son or daughter's spouse's brother)
meli = grandchild
meline = daughter of one's daughter or daughter-in-law                (granddaughter)
meli'o = son of one's daughter or daughter-in-law (grandson)
hemeline = daughter of one's son or son-in-law (granddaughter)
hemeli'o = son of one's son or son-in-law (grandson)

 
Heads of State & The Embassy:
malane = wife's mother
fala'o = wife's father
hemala = husband's mother
hefala = husband's father

 
Constituents:
nola = grandparent
noko = mother's father
none = mother's mother
henoko = father's father
henone = father's mother

Finally, there is one last group, which we will call The Authority. These are people that are three tiers above the Constituents. Once one of the Heads of State or The Embassy has a Constituent, those who previously occupied The Law become The Authority, for as long as they live. They are generally referred to only one way by everyone, and they refer to everyone else in only one way (more so in large gatherings; they'll still call their daughter their daughter on the telephone--every other Sunday when it doesn't rain). So, here is how The Authority figures into this mess:

 
The Authority:
malilea = great-grandchild, or grandchild, or child (only used by                The Authority)
kepilea = great-grandson, or grandson, or son
layalea = great-granddaughter, or granddaughter, or daughter

 
Heads of State, The Embassy & Constituents:
ulape = great-grandparent, or grandparent, or parent (used only                for The Authority)
falape = great-grandfather, or grandfather, or father
malape = great-grandmother, or grandmother, or mother

As you can see, these last terms don't indicate exact relationships. What it does is when there's four generations in the family, the last generation becomes u Ulape, and they remain so until death. And, like I said, a grandmother will still call her mother "mother", but not in front of the kids. In front of them, she is Malape.

Lastly, there are just a few straggling terms. If you've got a relative and you can't remember how they relate to you or you relate to them, you just call them ola. Olane is a female relative and ola'o is a male one, but ola is the regular term. Usually what you just say is, "Olaka i oiei!", "I've got family!". Also, since it hasn't come up yet, you say he'emi for "baby". It's not the only word, but it'll do for now.

So, what do you think? Thoroughly confused? Wish you were still learning grammar? Ha, ha, ha, ha! Ahh, the unimaginable power of the author...! But, no, learning a language is not about wielding power over another; it's just about having fun and communicating. And this whole part was just an excuse to lay down a bunch of nouns that were somewhat related so you could have some sort of concrete set to refer back to. Maybe we'll talk about animals next... We'll see. There's no way to know what will come. The future! Oooooooooh! Everyone fear the future! Hee, hee, hee...


5.3: I, Me, Me, Mine!

I love copyright infringement, don't you? Funny thing is, Michael Jackson bought the copyrights to all the Beatles' songs. If you want to perform them in public and get money for it, you have to write to him to ask him if you can do covers. Crazy, huh? What's more, it was Paul McCartney--the worst Beatle--who suggested that he spend his millions buying the copyrights to songs (it was when they recorded "The Girl Is Mine" for Thriller). Of course, he had no idea he would buy his songs (as he calls them). Serves him right, says I. But anyway...

It occurred to me right now as I was trying to come up with some exercises that it might help to know how to say things like "my mother", "your father", und so weiter. Und so nun, ich werde dir eine Liste ├╝ber die Genitifpronomen geben. Oh, wait, I don't speak German... I'll go ahead and tell you how to form some genitive pronouns. However, I must warn you that there are many ways to form genitive pronouns depending on the relationship implied, so don't go around using this method to say "my car" or "my boss" in Kamakawi. You do that, I'll find out, and I'll sick Iko on you--she's vicious.

Iko: <growling> Urrrrrrrrraaaaaaaaaaowr!

Oh, my, that was adorable! Oh well. Anyway, here's how the genitive works in this case. The word ordinarily used to mean "and" or "with", oi, is used as a prefix and is prefixed to any noun, which changes that noun into "x's". This new word is then placed after the word which is possessed. Here are some examples:

 
Mali oiei = my child
Mala oi'ia = your mother
None oinanai = (the) friend's grandmother

But also, notice...

 
Ula oi'iko lia = this girl's parent

That's how you use it. Now, this is the way the prefix is used: (1) To indicate familial relationships; (2) to indicate relationships between a human and his/her pets; (3) to indicate relationships between animal families themselves; (4) to indicate non-professional relationships, as one's friends and acquaintances. For other types of relationships, other strategies are necessary. These will do for now.


5.4: Something You Should Know...

If you want to negate a nonequative sentence, you take that word oku and put it at the end of the sentence. Example:

 
Kelea ei = I am sad.
Kelea ei oku = I'm not sad

There is another way to do it, but only in the present tense. Since the subject status markers aren't obligatory in the present, you can put "oku first as a kind of negative subject marker. Here it would be:

 
Oku kelea ei = I'm not sad.

But you cannot do this in the past:

 
Ka kelea ei = I was sad.
Ka kelea ei oku = I wasn't sad.
Oku kelea ei = I'm not sad (present, not past).
*Oku ka kelea ei = not a grammatical utterance.

By following these patterns, you will be on the road to negative success in no time!


5.5: Hungry? I Am. Makes Me Want to Do Some Exercises...

Okay, let's do this thing.

Translate from Kamakawi to English: 
1.) Iko i mala oiei. 
2.) Ka ale hopetine oilea i Havai'i. 
3.) Kama'a meline oi'ipe hopoko. 
4.) Helea fala oikela oiei. 
5.) Kavaka layalea oipeaka kau. 
6.) U meli oieika ioku'u kamali'a. 
7.) Kelea malane oinea oku. 
8.) A pale nanai oi'iko eine i ipe pale. 
9.) Eli ei i hetela'o oiei. 
10.) Fe'ave'a malape oiei. 

Translate from English to Kamakawi: 
1.) Her parents are doctors. 
2.) My friend isn't cooking. 
3.) I didn't see your grandmother. 
4.) You talked to this boy's uncle. 
5.) Their cousins go to school. 
6.) He loves her older sister. 
7.) She doesn't love her husband. 
8.) Yours and my great grandparents are dead. 
9.) Your mother's father isn't happy. 
10.) This is my older brother's, wife's, sister-in-law's, mother's father.


5.6: Makilotumu Two! (Or Three or Four...)

apela (n.) sibling in law

pataki (n.) boy 
pataleka (n.) older brother of a girl, older sister of a boy 
pale (v.) to live at, to reside at 
pekane (n.) sister in law on the husband's side 
peka'o (n.) brother in law on the husband's side 
pela (n.) sibling 
pelane (n.) sister in law on the wife's side 
pela'o (n.) brother in law on the wife's side

tapela (n.) older brother of a boy, older sister of a girl 
tela (n.) aunt/uncle (non-gender specific) 
telane (n.) aunt on one's mother's side 
tela'o (n.) uncle on one's mother's side

kaka (n.) twin (same age, gender not important) 
kala (poiu) (v.) to talk to, to talk 
kepi (n.) son 
kepi'o (n.) son in law 
kela (n.) niece/nephew (non-gender specific) 
kelane (n.) niece of one's sister or sister in law 
kela'o (n.) nephew of one's sister or sister in law 
kelea (v.) to be sad

eli (v.) to love

mata (v.) to see 
mala (n.) mother 
malape (n.) great grandmother 
malane (n.) one's wife's mother 
mali (n.) child 
ma'amu (v.) to be going to school 
meli (n.) grandchild 
meline (n.) daughter of one's daughter or daughter in law 
meli'o (n.) son of one's daughter or daughter in law

naka (n.) carrot 
nakanaka (n.) younger sister of a boy, younger brother of a girl 
nanai (n.) friend 
neula (n.) ancestor 
neulane (n.) female ancestor 
neula'o (n.) male ancestor 
noko (n.) mother's father (grandfather) 
none (n.) mother's mother (grandmother) 
nola (n.) grandparent

inemile (v.) to be dead

laya (n.) daughter 
layane (n.) daughter in law (one's daughter or son's wife)

opela (n.) younger sister of a girl or younger brother of a boy 
oi- (pref.) used to express nonprofessional, inter-being relationships 
oine (n.) spouse 
ola (n.) relative 
olaka (n.) one's extended family 
olane (n.) female relative 
ola'o (n.) male relative

fala (n.) father 
falape (n.) great grandfather 
falane (n.) one's wife's father 
fe'ave'a (v.) to be wise 
fotu (n.) husband

ula (n.) parent 
ulape (n.) great grandparent

hetelane (n.) aunt on one's father's side 
hetela'o (n.) uncle on one's father's side 
hekepi (n.) son in law (son or daughter's spouse's brother) 
hekelane (n.) niece of one's brother or brother in law 
hekela'o (n.) nephew of one's brother or brother in law 
hemala (n.) one's husband's mother 
hemeline (n.) daughter of one's son or son in law 
hemeli'o (n.) son of one's son or son in law 
henoko (n.) one's father's father 
henone (n.) one's father's mother 
helaya (n.) daughter in law (son or daughter's spouse's sister) 
helea (v.) to cry, to weep 
hefala (n.) one's husband's father 
he'emi (n.) baby 
hopeti (n.) cousin 
hopetine (n.) female cousin 
hopeti'o (n.) male cousin 
hopoko (n.) husband

Pogo on Over to Part 6!